Florida Center for Cybersecurity

Access Control -- selective restriction of access to a place or other resource, such as data

Accessibility – the degree to which a computer or information system is available

Account Harvesting – collecting or "harvesting" of all the authentic account names on a system

Active Directory (AD) -- directory service that Microsoft developed for Windows domain networks 

Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) -- set of stealthy and continuous computer hacking processes, often orchestrated by human(s) targeting a specific entity.  APTs include initial compromise, establishing foothold, escalating privileges, reconnaissance, lateral movement, maintaining presence and completing the mission.

Anonymous -- a loosely affiliated collective of "hacktivists," typically motivated socially and politically, who engage in cyberattacks against corporate and government targets through web site disruptions and defacements, often resulting in the theft and release of sensitive or secured documents or personal information

Application -- software that performs programmed functions for a user. Applications can support word processing, spreadsheet development, graphic creation, presentation creation and database tasks

Arbitrary Code -- code that executes any commands of an attacker's choice on a target machine or in a target process

Attack -- the initial movement in a task or undertaking; to act on in a detrimental way or to cause harm to

Availability -- guaranteed access to information and data by authorized people

Backbone – the backbone is the "skeleton" of the Internet; it is a high‐speed fiber optic network of main lines that interconnect around the world at various places or Network Access Points (NAPs)

Backdoor -- a backdoor can be created by the exploitation of a vulnerability, such as a programming error or malware, and allows access into a device without proper authentication

Bandwidth -- the capacity of a communication channel to pass data during a certain period of time

Biometrics – access controlled by physical characteristics

Bit – the smallest unit measure of information storage, a term derived from "binary digit"

Black Hat (Hacker) -- A hacker with malicious intent who accesses computer networks without proper authority, legally or otherwise; slang for computer criminal

Blacklisting – blocking of harmful websites, often done by parents or employees with the aid of software programs that block with specified or selected criteria

Blended Threat – combined cyberattack methods that are used to increase damage during a computer network attack

Botnet -- a controlled network of a large number of computers infected with Trojan horse viruses by cybercriminals often used to implement a denial of service attack

Botmaster(s) – a person or group of people in control of a botnet and whose location is usually difficult to determine

Browser – used to view online content, a browser is a software program that can retrieve and display information and store cookies

Brute Force Attack -- a cryptanalytic attack that can, in theory, be used against any encrypted data

Buffer Overflow – overloading of a temporary data storage area so data overflows into adjacent buffers and corrupts them

BYOD (Bring Your Own Device) – acronym used to describe a policy that allows personal mobile devices within range of a wireless network, usually a corporate or private network, and that allows those users access

Cache – high-speed storage mechanism for memory or disks; pronounced "cash"

Cryptography – science and practice of securing with algorithms, particularly for third-party communications

Cipher -- mathematical symbol (0) denoting absence of quantity; zero; a cryptographic system in which units of text of regular length, usually letters, are transposed or substituted according to a predetermined code; the key to such a system; a message written or transmitted in such a system.

Ciphertext – encrypted form of a message being transferred

Client – a machine that uses and requests service from another system machine such as a "server"

Computer Emergency Response Team (CERT) – organization that provides incident response services to cyberattack victims and provides information about known vulnerabilities and threats as well as ways to stay safe online

Confidentiality – ensuring that information or data on a system is not accessed by unauthorized user 

Cookie – data exchanged between an HTTP server and browser that is then stored on a client for later server retrieval

Cross-site Scripting (XSS) -- a type of computer security vulnerability typically found in web applications that enables attackers to inject client-side script into web pages viewed by other users

Data Breach -- the intentional or unintentional release of secure information to an untrusted environment

Data Mining -- in a subfield of computer science, the computational process of discovering patterns in large data sets ("big data") involving methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems

Deep Packet Inspection -- a form of computer network packet filtering that examines the data part (and possibly also the header) of a packet as it passes an inspection point, searching for protocol non-compliance, viruses, spam, intrusions, or defined criteria to decide whether the packet may pass or if it needs to be routed to a different destination, or, for the purpose of collecting statistical information

Denial of Service (DoS) – prevention of authorized access or halting of system operations or system functions

Dictionary attack -- technique for defeating a cipher or authentication mechanism by trying to determine its decryption key or passphrase by trying hundreds or sometimes millions of likely possibilities, such as words in a dictionary; an attempt to hack into a computer or network by submitting every word in a dictionary as a possible password

Digital Forensics -- branch of forensic science including the recovery and investigation of digital media, often legal evidence, found in digital devices and digital records

Distributed denial of service (DDoS) – multiple systems, such as a botnet, for which operation and system functions have been halted

Domain controller -- a server that responds to security authentication requests

Domain Hijacking – an attacker blocks access to the DNS server and replaces information to gain access and take over that domain

Domain Name System (DNS) – the way domain names on the Internet are translated into Internet Protocol addresses; the named form of an Internet address

Doxing – an urban term used to describe searching for personally identifiable information by using online documents

Encryption -- the process of encoding messages (or information) in such a way that eavesdroppers or hackers cannot read it, but that authorized parties can

End Point Protection -- ensuring that a user's machine is safe for use

Firewall – a software or hardware component that prevents unauthorized access to or modification of a system

Flooding – providing more information than a system can handle to ultimately cause failure of that system

General Asset -- an item of value 

Grey Hat (Hacker) – hacker operating without malicious intent but are prepared to operate against legal or ethical boundaries

Identity Management -- practices involving the management of identification of individuals and verifying data to grant access with proper permissions

Information Asset -- informational item of value

Information Security -- protection of information and information systems against unauthorized access or modification of information, whether in storage, processing, or transit, and against denial of service to authorized users

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) -- online services that abstract user from the detail of infrastructure like physical computing resources, location, data partitioning, scaling, security and backup

Integrity – assuring that information is accurate and complete

Internet of Things (IoT) -- network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity, which enables these objects to collect and exchange data 

Internet Protocol – method used to send data from one computer to another over the Internet

Intrusion -- the act of intruding or the condition of being intruded on

Intrusion Detection System (IDS) – security management system that gathers and analyzes information on computers or on a network

Keylogger -- A software program or hardware device that records or transmits a user's keystrokes, and in some cases periodic screen shots, and is usually installed without the user's knowledge

MAC Address – numerical address that identifies each network device

Malware – software containing malicious code that is usually intended to gain unauthorized access to a computer or system

Man-in-the-Browser – Trojan horse that intercepts and manipulates electronic information over a supposedly secure link

Man-in-the-Middle (MITM) Attack – similar to the Man-in-the-Browser, but the hacker creates a diversion on the legitimate page that enables him/her to make changes in real time to the information entered by the unsuspecting user

Mobile and Wireless Security – system administration practices that ensure security of Mobile and Wireless devices, including the cloud, WLAN, and WIFI, and includes encryption methods, authentication, access permissions, and protection

Open source – free licensing and distribution of certain software and applications to promote universal access

Packet Sniffer -- a program or hardware component that can intercept and log traffic that passes over a network 

Password Cracking – attempt to guess passwords, sometimes with the aid of a cracking program

Password Sniffing – passive wiretapping to gain access to a password on a network

Patch – software update by a vendor intended to fix a known vulnerability

Penetration Testing and Vulnerability Assessment – testing of the external perimeter of a network to determine cyberattacks that could be caused by threats and the exploitation of vulnerabilities

Phishing – attempt to trick an e-mail recipient into disclosing sensitive information by posing as a trusted source

Physical Controls -- safeguards or countermeasures to avoid, detect, counteract, or minimize security risks to physical property

Remote Access Trojan (RAT) -- non-self-replicating malware that gains privileged access to the operating system then exploits the computer and allows unauthorized access to the target computer through a backdoor while appearing to perform a non-malicious function; also, allows remote control.

Root – the name of the administrator account on a Linux system

Rootkits -- a set of software tools used to gain unauthorized access to a computer system on a network and to control its operation

Security Controls -- safeguards or countermeasures to avoid, detect, counteract, or minimize security risks to physical property, information, computer systems, or other assets. Controls help to reduce the risk of damage or loss by stopping, deterring, or slowing down an attack against an asset

Session Hijacking (Sidejacking) -- taking over or duplicating an established session

Smishing -- using fraudulent short message service (SMS or text messages) containing links to illegitimate websites to extract financial data from computer users or for purposes of identity theft

Smurf Attack -- distributed denial-of-service attack in which large numbers of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets with the intended victim's spoofed source IP are broadcast to a computer network using an IP Broadcast address

Sniffing – another name for passive wiretapping

Social Engineering – using social techniques, such as lying, blackmailing or impersonating, to trick another person with the ultimate goal of gaining otherwise unauthorized access to an information system

Software Configuration -- state at which software is configured that is tracked using versioning 

Spoofing –pretending to be an authorized user to gain access to a system

Spyware -- software that secretly gathers information about a person or organization; any malicious software that is designed to take partial or full control of a computer's operation without the knowledge of its user

Steganography –hiding a message or data within a file or program

Symmetric Key -- a class of algorithms for cryptography that use the same cryptographic keys for both encryption of plaintext and decryption of ciphertext

System administration -- IT Administration, which includes the design, construction, configuration, security and maintenance of computer systems and networks

Teardrop -- a remote denial-of-service attack (DoS)

Technical Controls -- technical safeguards or countermeasures to avoid, detect, counteract, or minimize security risks to physical or non-physical assets or property

Threat – potential for violation of security, often by exploitation of a vulnerability

Trojan horse -- non-self-replicating malware that gains privileged access to the operating system then exploits the computer and allows unauthorized access to the target computer through a backdoor while appearing to perform a non-malicious function

Virtual Server -- server used for hosting virtual machines.

Virtualization -- simulating a hardware platform, operating system (OS), storage device, or network resources

Virus – a hidden, self-replicating program usually containing malicious code that cannot run by itself

Vishing -- using fraudulent phone calls or voice messages (VOIP) using social engineering techniques to extract financial data from people or for purposes of identity theft

Vulnerability – part of a system, device, computer, or network that could be exploited by a threat to execute a cyberattack

Weakness -- a deficiency or failing

WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) -- a security algorithm for IEEE 802.11 wireless networks that was introduced as part of the original 802.11 standard ratified in 1997 to provide data confidentiality comparable to that of a traditional wired network

White Hat (Hacker) – penetration tester responsible for the security of a system

Worm – a program containing malicious code that can replicate over a network and can run by itself

WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) -- developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to secure wireless computer networks; The Wi-Fi Alliance intended WPA as an intermediate measure to take the place of WEP pending the availability of the full IEEE 802.11i standard; (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) TKIP was adopted for WPA

WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protected Access II) -- developed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to secure wireless computer networks; WPA2 has replaced WPA and includes mandatory support for CCMP, an AES-based encryption mode with strong security

Zero-Day Exploit -- exploitation of a vulnerability occurring before it is known and before it can be protected against using standard methods

Zombie – a compromised computer that will be later used, unbeknown to the owner; Botnets of zombie computers can be used to execute an e-mail spam campaign and launch DoS attacks

The significance of Cybersecurity can be determined by the increasing need for terms describing and giving meaning to concepts within cyber-space.